Climate factsheets

Below, you can explore some fact sheets covering general topics relevant for climate studies, in PRIMAVERA and beyond.

How do Climate Models work?

Climate models are mathematical representations
of the climate system, its components and their
interactions.

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Does high-resolution global modelling matter?

A new generation of high-resolution, global climate models (GCMs) is developed and used within the PRIMAVERA project. They feature improved model physics and representation of small scale processes.

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Dealing with uncertainties

There are different types of uncertainties (natural variability, model and scenario uncertainties) and consequently different ways of how to deal with them.

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Quality of climate models

Models are always a simplification of reality and, therefore, they will never represent reality exactly.

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Uncertainty in climate projections

“Uncertainty” has a specific meaning in climate
science.

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Ensembles of Climate Models and how they can be used

A climate model ensemble consists of model runs with slight differences in settings or initial conditions, or with different climate models or forcings.

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Data sources and risk assessments

There are many different sources of climate data, all with their advantages and disadvantages.

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Climate predictions and projections

A climate projection is the response of the climate system to different future greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios, often based upon simulations by climate models.

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